Title: Babylon Federation: An Interview by Antonella Beccaria to Marco Bolognesi
Author: Antonella Beccaria
Year: 2014

Never has, Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, scientist of the seventeenth century, been more right: his postulate, on the basis of the law of conservation of mass, seems to translate in coherent terms in the BOMAR Universe that does not create or destroy anything, but that evolves the existing by creating a new world interwoven with elements of the past with which stories are told of the future. Literature and cinema, video games and the internet, real genocides and imaginary oppressions are pieces of the artistic production of Marco Bolognesi, creator of an environment which has been continually evolving for more than two decades now and that has one goal: to strip art from the walls of pompous art galleries and the elite and return it to the people, without economic and cultural distinction, in a sort of post-socialism that enriches everyone, from the artist to the individual.

Speaking of your world, we must start from the most evident influence, cyberpunk. Why is this genre so important?

“Cyberpunk comes from the typical problems of the post-industrial era which society had put in the spotlight. Issues such as biotechnology, telematics, as well as cloning and the creation of virtual posed great questions of ethics and one of the methods to attempt to answer these questions has been the use of science fiction mixed with aspects of the older punk movement. This is cyberpunk, considered especially in the eighties as a genre, a primarily literary laboratory. It certainly exasperated many techniques of expression, but for me it was important because in this environment the cyborg appears for the first time as a paradigm of a new post-human vision.”

What specific elements were of particular stimulus?

“Very many, starting with those at the premise of a discussion on the concept of identity and humanity: what happens to the interiority of every woman and every man, to their body, when they interact so closely with technology? A realization to the futuristic visions of the eighties is found more over time: other than a pacemaker, today we have athletes with mechanical limbs that can be faster than the able-bodied or glasses with cameras that allow you to search for information in real time. Well, now this is our present and there is no doubt that cyberpunk uncovered these issues for the first time that are now part of everyday life.”

Citing literary works, which were essential for you?

“In the literary field obvious cyberpunk works such as “Neuromancer” by William Gibson (1984) and the “Mirrorshades” trilogy by Bruce Sterling (1986). Here appear the multinationals, the technology, and the new role of the city. But we must not forget that these two masters are progenies of other authors such as the English James Graham Ballard and the American Philip Dick, whose work “Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?” (1968) inspired Ridley Scott for “Blade Runner” (1982), a milestone. Consider then the text The Man in the High Castle also by Dick in which he develops a reflection on the theme of what is real and what is not. But all this is quite well known.”

What about some lesser known influences?

“From this point of view, of the cyberpunk I find specific aspects stimulating: the avatar concept of Neal Stephenson, the ideal father of “Second Life”. I also strongly believe that reality does not exist, but that it is just perception, which changes according to the visions and is somehow manipulable. Take, for example an image perceived by us and an animal: we are living on the same planet, but the way our senses process things produces entirely different results. The analogy is therefore valid also for the cultures that, through different perceptions, create visions and therefore lives that are completely divergent.”

Has the advent of technology its effects stimulated literature and film?

“The issue becomes more complex when we think that there are in fact virtual worlds in which we interact. Although this issue has already been addressed by cyberpunk: think not only “Minority Report”, but also “Tron” in which the experience reaches a level so extreme that the protagonist enters a video game. A similar experience can be seen today in some current communication systems, such as the aforementioned “Second Life”, which has somehow materialized as predicted from the movie “The Lawnmower Man” and the game “Minecraft” in which the world is not physical, but a manipulable environment. So it is no longer unrealistic to maintain that nowadays there is nothing authentically real. Even the photograph, a paradigm of reality when taken, after editing loses all pretence of tangible documentation.”

But it is not just the intangible world of software, there are also mechanical components.

“True. The relationship between man and machine – and its impact on everyday life – is another cyberpunk theme. However also in this case is not new. The image of the cyborg – that is, the composite being combining a physical body with artificial parts – the movement born in the scientific formulations of the sixties, but was already part of the science fiction work of the previous decade “Greater than Gods” by Catherine Lucille Moore, the great American writer who anticipated the existence of other possible worlds. Or it is spotted in the extraordinary space pilot Novadi Delany and yet, in addition to the enormous narrative production of Asimov, Ellison and Bestered, there are the episodes of “Star Trek”, “2001: A Space Odyssey” with Hal 9000 up to the “Dark Star” of John Carpenter with his computer bomb.”

But could all this be considered part of the past?

“I would agree when you say that cyberpunk is dead, but only on a literary level. Its great legacy – is identifiable in the stratified use of science fiction that becomes an ideological tool of social analysis – it has been reworked by the world of cinema, which is very important for me, a source of great inspiration, and many ideas. When watch a film, I find myself not only searching through the images, but also listening to them, talking with them. Every film that I have inside my mind is a brick in my BOMAR Universe, which I have been working on for twenty years and they have helped to shape my artistic vision.”

Which films are you referring to?

“Many, not only by the authors I have already mentioned. Take for example John Carpenter to whom I dedicated the book “Dark Star”, just like his film of the same name. When the volume was published, I sent him a copy and he replied praising it. And then in my work it is as if you were talking of “Alien” vital to the computer Mother, which induces hibernation – was full of dark elements – with which people can make long interstellar journeys. Let’s take “Wargames” by John Badham, another film which I am fond of: here, through a game, a young hacker far removed from the Gibson style imagery – and therefore a figure with which anyone can empathize – puts in check the largest power in the world, the United States.”

Any other titles?

“Other fundamental films are “Total Recall” (1990) by Paul Verhoevene “Terminator” (1984) by James Cameron: the first to introduce the concept of artificial consciousness, which may be planted, and the second for his masterful application of the idea of ​​robotics that comes from a future where robots become something more chilling. On a similar track, I would mention also “RoboCop” by Paul Verhoeven in which a police officer is brought back to life thanks to grafting with machines. Equally rich in inspiration are “Tetsuo: The Iron Man” by Shinya Tsukamoto (1989) and the anime “Akira” by Katsuhiro Otomo (1988), which opened a window in my worldview. The representation of different realities and therefore new identities was at the end of the nineties with the first instalment of “The Matrix” which, along with the next two chapters of the Wachowski brothers’ trilogy, brings back issues which have already been addressed in many ways by cyberpunk.”

So far you have often married works of Western authors with some reference to Eastern cultures. Who would you add to this list?

“If I proceed with my personal sources of inspiration, I would add another milestone, “Ghost in the Shell”, a 1995 animated film by Mamoru Oshii where we find a powerful iconography of tubes coming out of the body, which is a cybernetic aspect of a human being. Finally I would add Natural City by Byung-Chun Min (2002), considered to be the “Blade Runner” of Eastern cinema, which tells of a war between cyborgs and humans through a Ridley Scott iconography (think for example of acid rain), full of questions about the concept of right and wrong. Finally, though not coming from the Far East, there is the unforgettable “I, Robot” (2004), based on a text by Asimov.”

Has referring to Eastern culture always been important to you?

“Like most people born in the seventies and eighties, I grew up with the manga and Japanese cartoons. Japan and its culture have given us iconographic elements completely different from those to which we were accustomed. They made us imagine a future based on robots, on the Mazinger, who no longer spoke unknown foreign languages, but expressed themselves like us. They were robots (and I’m referring to the mythology of Goldrake and then the master Go Nagai) who spoke of spatial halberds and thousand valve circuits.”

Was your cultural background purely science fiction?

“No. Next in line we would have to consider a different type of film, that of Antonio Margheriti (aka Anthony M. Dawson), of Mario Bava and the Italian B-movie. Through directors and films of this genre I had access to additional iconography which then helped create the BOMAR Universe. As well as comics, with which I continuously connect ranging from the underground to Italian comic books, such as the Druuna heroine scenarios created by Paolo Eleuteri Serpieri, to the beautiful stories of Frank Miller and Bill Sienkiewicz and “Elektra: Assassin”. Or “The Caste of the Metabarons” by Alejandro Jodorowsky and Gimenez and “The Ring of the monster” by Enki Bilal. Each of these visions permeate me and then end up in my world.”

How is all this cultural baggage translated into the world you’ve created?

“Since 2003 each of my art projects have been included in the BOMAR Universe, a world with a history and an internal coherence. It is a continuous work in progress that gives life to a platform where, taking into consideration many aspects of contemporary life, I elaborate my language. I start a story, build characters and locations, as Matthew Barney did with the saga “Creamaster”: he built a world and told, on various levels, his stories. All with a strong focus on storytelling. It is not true that contemporary art is anti-narrative. Contemporary art can describe another world and we need stories, we live by them, because without them we would not have the tool to give substance to our thoughts.”

An art that “speaks”, in short?

“In a sense. I believe in fact, in an art in contact and in relation to the iconography of the masses, and from this point of view the best examples are cinema, comics and literature. In fact, I avoid hyper conceptualism, because if it is too abstract it fails to relate to people, it creates so many barriers with the user that it completely loses connection with the audience and nullifies the aim of the message. If art does not “live”, it causes its viewers to turn away and with contemporary art I try to avoid this risk by using it as a device of the story. To do that I interact with musicians, writers, performers and actors and I do not exclude anything from my future. Especially because in my vision there is the desire to create a world that is more pop, more popular, and open to society as a whole. I am opposed to a self-referential vision of contemporary art that does not tell a story and only talks to itself. The effect that you get by doing so is that of a private club for a few while art is meant to be shared, appreciated by the society in which it falls. So this is the basis.”

Essentially how do you translate this in your work?

“In the use of all media possible to publicize my work. Being an artist means becoming a kind of brand, building your own distribution network that is as unrestricted as possible. Because, of course, the sale of the work is one of the goals, and it is vital to create funds, but it is not the only one. Art can be expressed on different levels: in the face of those who can afford to buy the work, there must be practical answers for those who do not have this ability and can therefore opt for the book, the gadget or simply the site. The task of the artist is to describe his world through all these channels.”

What is the technique that you use?

“I always work through collage and technically this is a thread that recurs constantly in my work. More in the detail, I generally apply accessories to the body of the model that I want to be present in the work. Recently I found it interesting to continue my form of collage also in post-production, editing and changing the original story into something else. This is because, again, I want to get away from an ancient form of artistic expression, which is then accompanied and enhanced by digital manipulation.”

From the point of view of content, however, how have you’ve created your people?

“In my approach of the storytelling world, I created a world city, Sendai City, inside which all my characters live, including the Babylon Federation, the oldest given that they began to come to life in 2003, with the beginning of the second Gulf War. At the time I was in England, I was living in London, and I was beginning to create the imagery of this world along with Carlo Lucarelli, imagery that was then materialized in the graphic novel “Protocol”. We were looking for female characters – in the past 15 years I have chosen to work primarily with the female body – and we were attracted by a character who dear to us: “Elektra: Assassin” I referred to her earlier, a heroine born between 1986 and 1987, a great fighter and very beautiful. In the network, then, I was seeking inspiration for the character of my gun girl and I came across a series of photographs: some recently published shots of American soldiers stationed in Iraq who were engaged in orgies, posing naked and showing off their weapons, the same ones used to carry out massacres and torture that here created an almost sensual, erotic image.”

Were they graphic pictures?

“The vision of these photos immediately sparked a sort of disgust and the desire to denounce this kind of “damned army” engaged in a conflict that has caused great killings on multiple fronts. While we cannot forget the death of Fabrizio Quattrocchi and Enzo Baldoni, on the other hand there were the prisoners of Abu Ghraib and Fallujah campaign of 2004. From there other images started coming to my mind, such as scene of the movie “Crash” by Cronenberg, the works of Enrico Baj that are part of the series “General”, but also Sigourney Weaver and Grace Jones. They were very different sources: on the one hand films and their characters were very important for the rebirth of the feminine iconography of the eighties and other canvases in which, through the use of collage, items were then applied such as military medals, degrees and honours.”

Which specific aspects of these inputs contributed to your revision?

“Sigourney Weaver, the heroine of “Alien”, is a woman who wields a machine gun and fought with obstinacy against the invincible alien monster. She is a character who has changed the imagery of the woman, no longer just mum or an erotic symbol, she takes hold of the situation and saves the human race by using force, but also intelligence. Grace Jones, on the other hand, another great heroine, is a cyborg, a symbol of energy and power. She is a woman who, in other projects, strongly inspired me with her look, regardless of the music. I wanted both to influence the Babylon Federation, who live in the citadel and I imagined them proud, vigorous, happy to be at the same time both and cyborgs and female creatures who do not hide their sensuality.”

Why are your subjects always women?

“I’m often asked this and the answer is quite complicated. First of all, my work is not on women, but the image of the female body, far more important because it can be used to narrate on contemporary reality: a woman is contemporary from the moment she becomes a woman. But that’s not all. From my point of view, it is also the image of the future because it has proven to be absolutely superior to man. For me it was always spontaneous to focus on the female form and it would not be enough only to argue that the reason lies in my love for women, their beauty, their way of conceiving the world, and their ability to generate life. In reality there is much more. Today, if we look at the world of women, we see how this has been reduced by the media to a roundup of gender stereotypes and social clichés that in appearance seem unmoving. And from here I move away from stereotypes, to remove them, to break them down, and once reduced to pieces to reconstruct an image of the woman mocking the stereotypes surrounding them. Then it occurred to me in the past to go beyond the concept of gender. Think of the work done for “Humanscape” where I simply portray bodies, a symbol of the self, sarcophagi imprisoned in reality seeking to go further. Sure, those bodies are not asexual, they are female, and this is due to the fact that by default I only portray women.”

Still past and future joined in parallel also by images of women?

“Yes, that outline was a past future, which I find very close to my fiction. In this universe, the role of women was essential, just think of what I was saying before about Japanese anime: Aphrodite A is a female robot driven by Sayaka Yumi found in the Great Mazinger or Tetsuya, conquered by the charming Jun Hono, the mixed-race beauty of the manga universe. We’re talking about women who pilot robots, women of the future, who do not refer to a past iconography. In building my world so that I could not imagine a woman proud of herself, that is cloned and that populates this world because she is the best. In my work there is never any blood, but we will see women proud of their post-humanity, of being post women, important elements of the future. A dystopian future, however, it does not have the opportunity to grow and that is why it goes back to rediscover the iconography and aesthetic vision within the past in order to move forward.”

In what way?

“I chose to use historical and military elements. In addition to the American photos taken in the zones of the first war in Iraq, as I said before, as well as the English, German and French armies. I did it as a protest of an undeniably imperialist practice of all nations that belong to the Western world, primarily the United States, a practice that exports democracy and instead is the daughter of an old colonialist thought, the antithesis of democracy, aimed only at maximizing their benefits. At one time men were torn from their homelands to be deported to the old and new world subjected to slavery. Later, then, that thought has turned into a wild hoarding of natural resources and the use of intelligence and arms to turn “unruly” nations to the dominant western thinking. However, what Western armies bring with them is only political and economic control of the territory. I could not resist including this setting – obviously in terms of metaphors – even in my Babylon Federation, when I conceived them as beings created through genetic manipulations performed in laboratories set up ad hoc.”

How is the military world portrayed in your project?

“In Sendai City the army is made ​​up of the Babylon Federation. They are entities cultivated and then cybernated, educated in the art of war by white geishas to whom are entrusted rather with the worship of Sendai, nurtured by the love for the metal and for flesh. They are arranged in pyramid shapes, but not controlled by the Big Brain but by their commanders, representatives of the party “politics” of the city. The Babylon Federation live in a town in Sendai City, in a place that is very reminiscent of “1997: Escape from New York” by John Carpenter, the film in which a city became a state within a state, a place of confinement for prisoners who followed a different set of rules. Even the Babylon, although an army, live recluse, beasts in captivity inside a citadel isolated from the rest of Sendai City by a large energy barrier surmountable only by air, in spaceships.”

The Babylon Federation live only for war?

“No, they have initiation rites in which the cross has a central role and the liturgy before the combat is favoured by lysergic substances. They are divided into three parts, with distinct functions and motions from different inspirations: the Stark Special Corps, the Interstellar Units and the Royal Manticore. Each armed body is linked to the other, given that they descend from each other while maintaining a proper and specific difference. They represent the core of the coalition nations of the West, which in our world would correspond to France, Germany and the Southern Republics. The Babylon distributed in these bodies have an outward heterogeneous appearance, they can be dressed or undressed, but always “wear” military medals.”

How do they do that if they are without clothing?

“During the training, the Babylon have passed the stage of pain, which is the first step. For this reason, appending military symbols directly into the skin, many of which are symbols of human warfare that took place on Earth before the advent of mutants and cyborgs (thus there are Nazi symbols, Napoleonic symbols, brooches from the World Wars, gas masks, and so on). The aim then is to honour the great wars from which Sendai City arose, but at the same time these symbols lose their origin and historicity and become a mere symbol of Baroque and post human power.”

How did they come to be?

“The Babylon go out and work only at night, like hyenas. And they try to limit – and even eliminate – the action of mutant rebels, hostiles to cybernisation and the flow of liquid memory to the Great Brain. Because in the world of Sendai City there is a population of mutants as well as humans cultivated and subjected to genetic mutations with bodies that are enhanced and improved. This involves at least eleven organs, and uses organic implants suitably modified by specific biomedical practices. The genes of cultivated beings – which then belong to the Babylon themselves – and must be approved and that is why they live longer, on average, their existence is three times longer than that of the mutants. It also injects into them a consciousness and in this way these perfect female beings are created, ready for battle.”

What about the other female beings who populate your world?

“In the scheme of things, the white geishas deal in the indoctrination of Sendai taking care of the stages of pain, prayer and the deconstruction. At the end you get a warrior ready for anything. The Stark Special Corps instead are inspired deeply by the period of the Third Reich, one of the most dramatic and cruel of our time. Not surprisingly, this body has as strong armed iconographic reference in the vein of the Nazi exploitation films, typical of the seventies, and of which there was a rich Italian production. In these films we see a merge between the Nazis and imagery elements of eroticism and sexuality that focuses on the repertoire of torture and sadomasochism. Such films as “Ilsa, She Wolf of the SS” and its sequels, or “The Devil’s General”, to name a few.”

But there are also other, less extreme, more metaphorical ones?

“In fact, there are movies that start from the same idea, but have a less erotic vision, including The Night Porter by Liliana Cavani or, in the broadest sense, “Salò and the 120 Days of Sodom” by Pier Paolo Pasolini. Going back here – and it’s an interesting element – the link of the uniform that is reviewed and reinterpreted. Also I was inspired by those post-apocalyptic kids’ films “Mad Max” and “The Warriors”, but also Italian productions such as those of Castellani and his work on the Bronx. Yet in these works they returned to underground bands that roamed the city with a common use of uniform. These are the ideas from which I have started from and which I have worked on.”

In addition to the Stark Special Corps, who do the other levels represent?

“The Interstellar Units represent aviation. I immediately imagined the colour red for them and they are the body that is most made ​​up from evident robot parts, more than any other. In fact, they have bionic arms, there are wires and tubes protruding from their limbs and in some cases they wear red skin masks. They are created from the implantation of devices and motors of all kinds and they feel like machines themselves, so superior to any other individual, they hail a deity who has their own characteristics. Adorn themselves with stars and among them there is a bearer of knowledge, honoured as the one who knows their origins and their future. She has a hypnotic gaze with which, without the use of weapons, she controls the minds of those who she want. In addition, the Interstellar Units are an armed body born of illegal experiments, conducted sometimes by mega corporations that wanted to keep their discoveries hidden from their competitors. When the Sendai Corporation learned of them, they appropriated them. Ultimately, these units are afraid of being considered heretical by the Great Brain, but tolerate their religion because it renders them detached, stronger, and without that their loyalty would be tarnished.”

How do the Interstellar Units get around?

“They drive the Black Ships telepathically. The pilot connects her brain to the ship and a flow of energy from the Great Brain. This fleet soars through the skies of the vast city, checking that everything is working. In short, they are a kind of emergency services, with spaceships quick and fast, capable of transporting troops in the event of riots or draining of the tubular system that distributes the liquid memory to the Great Brain. The crew members spend a lot of time in the upper screen chambers on the main deck because, despite having cybernetic parts, they have sensitivity in their human parts. So for their brains it could be dangerous to stay connected too long with the ship. Finally, because of their all-encompassing vision of existence, they are moved by the impulse to destroy all known forms of planets and races who do not share their own point of view that there is only death.”

Why are their ships called Black Ships?

“Because of their colour, but also because they are part of the Skeleton-One, short and medium range methods of transport that can come out of Sendai City without straying too far from the Skeleton Arcadia, the great mother of the other smaller spaceships. This relationship determines the name, Skeleton-One, Skeleton-Bis and so on. There are squadrons that determine the fleet of Interstellar Units, as well as cargo ships and bombers.”

The Interstellar units seem to contain other references to those already shown.

“The resulting reference, in creating the Interstellar Units, is actually closer to an image of westerns, or even spaghetti westerns and the sub-genre of weird west. The latter is a tradition started with “The Phantom Empire”, the 1935 film in which a cowboy collides with a mysterious underground empire that has amazing technological inventions. But this imagery is then somehow mixed with the memory of the”Weird Western Tales” of the DC Comics, a series I read as a child and where the Western setting is continuously mixed with elements of fantasy and supernatural. In my units there are also elements from “Dune” by David Lynch and a mash up of suggestions so diverse in appearance that I began to give shape to the Interstellar Units, in which they are a sort of cowboy of the future with nineteenth century poses and a revolver always ready to shoot.”

And the Royal Manticore?

“The Royal Manticore are the corps that are most difficult to understand and that is just how they were intended: they are corrupted by the most perverse pleasures, not just those arising from the thrill of battle, caused by the shedding of blood, or by the use of brute force. They give in to the pleasures of lust while remaining soldiers and as an armed body that does not conform to any authority except their own. They are also quite vain, they care much about their appearance and their hairstyles. Their colours are red, white and blue, and they try to show off whenever they can. They do everything to get noticed, even on the battlefield, with their signature pyrotechnic and stun attacks. In addition, their arrival is heralded by very noisy chants. Renouncing silent rapprochement, denouncing arrogance that blends into lawlessness and instability. They are also the military body responsible for the supervision of the bureaucratic system, bulwarks against corruption, fanatical and deeply devoted to the cult of Sendai. In fact, as their lives can be extremely violent – for them justice is claimed at gunpoint – they devote themselves to prayer and living in a constant state of obedience not to face the torments reserved for sinners and heretics.”

How are they distinguished from an ethnic and military point of view?

“Most of them are of colour, and all have large calibre weapons. They constitute the marine space, dealing with journeys to be made to bring about scientific research or to maintain the established order. The piloting of their spacecraft is different from that of Interstellar Units and is controlled by a computerized system because, given the high travel time, their brains would not be able to withstand a telepathic link with the ship so long.”

Before you spoke of a bureaucratic structure. What is that?

“The republic consists of 12 electorates by the people of Sendai who become directors of the Great Brain and whatever gives them power. The patriarchs instead are fathers of all this, but even those who are placed in power by the city. In fact, they are part of the parliament of the republic governed by a president, an absolute governor worshiped as a god. In the structure that manages the BOMAR Universe there are elite members of the administrative organization. Many of these “employees” have direct contact with the Great Brain and ignore the way in which the bureaucracy of the city fits into their world. They are in fact trained to follow orders and do their tasks without understanding what they are doing. The tax system finally calculates the level of richness of each component in relation to the part of the planet that it occupies and it is an important function because it is also defines the level of control to apply.”

How is it controlled?

“The construction of the planet must continue without any resistance bothering it. For this there is need for resources and therefore many branches of this “tax” body pay attention to the various processes of accruals, reporting any breaches in the security of an area and monitoring the various areas of the Sendai so that the republic taxes are paid on a regular basis.”

But is this is a bureaucracy that works or, like ours, does it impose constraints and delays?

“Despite the many agents, it is unfortunately a very slow and inefficient bureaucracy. But the fact remains that, when cases of corruption and embezzlement are detected, the system calls the Babylon Federation who get involved in a firm and brutal way.”

That leaves the Stark special corps.

“They are a special body of great violence that goes into action as soon as it receives the order to do so. Their exposure to chemical mutagens has warped the minds of Stark special corps causing mental changes. One of their characteristics is the robotic parts appear as primitive-looking parts, but are in reality powerful bionic arms. They also make use of poison gas to exterminate their enemies and they love, in a perverse way, any poisonous substance to which they are immune. They practice a secret cult, love massacres and devote themselves to the torture of enemies and drink their blood. When they go out on the field of battle, they are caught in a frenzy that leads them to be blinded by a kind of red fury. So they lose control and are attacked by a desire to kill again, picking on anyone around them.”

To sum up in a message, what would you recommend?

“I would say that the truth is here, within this world, and we just need a little courage to discover it. Sendai City on the other hand is upon us: we do not see because we have been injected with lenses for visual control. So the reality, as we see it, does not exist, our world does not exist, we’re just shapes, forms to be modelled.”

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